Essential Spring Framework Interview Questions

Are you preparing for an upcoming interview that focuses on the Spring Framework? Look no further! This page is designed to equip you with a comprehensive set of Spring Framework interview questions and their insightful answers.

Whether you are a seasoned developer or just starting your journey with Spring, these questions will help you deepen your understanding of the framework’s key concepts and enhance your interview performance. We’ve got you covered. Let’s dive in and unlock the knowledge you need to excel in Spring Framework interviews.

By the way, you might also be interested in checking Spring Boot Interview Questions.

Table of Contents

What is Spring Framework?

The Spring Framework is a powerful and popular open-source Java framework that provides a comprehensive infrastructure for developing robust and scalable enterprise applications. It simplifies the development process by offering a cohesive programming model, extensive libraries, and a modular architecture.

Spring Framework promotes loose coupling, dependency injection, and aspect-oriented programming, making it easier to create flexible, maintainable, and testable applications. It covers various areas such as data access, web development, security, messaging, and more, making it a versatile framework for building Java applications.

Spring Framework Key Modules

The Spring Framework is modular in nature and consists of several modules that cater to different aspects of application development. Here are some of the key modules in the Spring Framework:

  1. Core Container: This module provides the fundamental features of the framework, including dependency injection (DI) and inversion of control (IoC) through the ApplicationContext.
  2. Spring MVC: This module offers a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture for building web applications. It provides features like request mapping, view resolution, and support for RESTful web services.
  3. Data Access/Integration: Spring offers modules for seamless integration with different data access technologies such as JDBC (Java Database Connectivity), Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks like Hibernate, and support for NoSQL databases.
  4. Spring Security: This module provides robust security features for applications, including authentication, authorization, and protection against common security vulnerabilities.
  5. Spring AOP: Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) allows modularization of cross-cutting concerns in an application. The Spring AOP module enables the implementation of AOP concepts such as aspect, join point, advice, and pointcut.
  6. Spring Testing: This module provides support for unit testing and integration testing of Spring applications. It includes utilities for writing test cases, mocking dependencies, and performing assertions.
  7. Spring Messaging: This module facilitates the integration of messaging protocols and technologies within Spring applications. It includes support for message-driven POJOs, WebSocket communication, and asynchronous processing.
  8. Spring Web Services: This module offers features for creating and consuming SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and RESTful web services using Spring.

These are just a few of the many modules available in the Spring Framework, each serving a specific purpose in application development. Developers can choose and configure the modules based on their project requirements.

Learn more at Excel in Spring Framework: The Complete Guide.

What are the features of Spring Framework?

  • The Spring Framework adheres to a layered architecture pattern, facilitating the selection of necessary components while offering a robust and cohesive framework for developing J2EE applications.
  • Spring offers a highly configurable MVC web application framework that allows for easy switching to alternative frameworks if desired.
  • The AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) aspect of Spring ensures unified development by effectively separating an application’s business logic from other system services.
  • Spring is a lightweight and loosely coupled framework built on Java.
  • It allows for the creation and management of configurations while defining the lifecycle of application objects.
  • It provides a generic abstraction layer for transaction management, which proves useful even in container-less environments.
  • By employing the IoC (Inversion of Control) design principle, Spring enables objects to provide their dependencies instead of being responsible for creating dependent objects.
  • Spring simplifies exception handling by offering a convenient API to translate technology-specific exceptions (such as those thrown by JDBC or Hibernate) into consistent and unchecked exceptions, thereby introducing abstraction.

Learn more at Key Features of Spring Framework.

How does Spring Framework differ from Node.js, and when would you choose one over the other?

Spring Framework and Node.js are both popular choices for web development, but they have distinct characteristics that make them suitable for different scenarios.

Spring Framework is a comprehensive Java-based framework that provides a robust infrastructure for building enterprise-level applications. It offers features such as dependency injection, aspect-oriented programming, and support for various databases and transaction management. Spring Framework follows a modular approach and promotes the use of design patterns, making it suitable for large-scale applications requiring strong architectural foundations and a mature ecosystem.

On the other hand, Node.js is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 engine. It allows developers to build scalable and high-performance applications using JavaScript on the server-side. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model, which makes it particularly efficient for handling concurrent requests. It excels in scenarios that involve real-time applications, streaming, and handling a large number of concurrent connections.

Choosing between Spring Framework and Node.js depends on the specific requirements of your project. If you are working with Java-based applications, have complex business logic, and require integration with enterprise technologies, Spring Framework would be a suitable choice. On the other hand, if you are building lightweight, highly scalable applications that heavily rely on real-time communication or need to handle a large number of concurrent requests, Node.js would be a favorable option.

What are the various elements that make up a Spring application?

A Spring application consists of several key components that work together to provide a comprehensive development framework.

These components include the inversion of control (IoC) container, which manages the lifecycle of objects and their dependencies; the dependency injection (DI) mechanism, which allows for loose coupling and easier testing; the Spring MVC framework, which facilitates building web applications; and the data access layer, which provides seamless integration with databases.

Additionally, Spring offers various modules like Spring Security for authentication and authorization, Spring AOP for aspect-oriented programming, and Spring Boot for simplifying application setup and configuration. Collectively, these components empower developers to create robust and scalable applications using the Spring Framework.

What does the term “Spring configuration file” refer to, and how does it contribute to the Spring Framework?

A Spring configuration file is a crucial component of the Spring Framework. It is an XML or Java-based file that contains essential configuration information for a Spring application. This file defines the beans, their dependencies, and the various aspects of the application’s behavior.

By specifying the configuration details in a dedicated file, the Spring Framework can effectively manage and wire the application’s components, promoting modularity and ease of maintenance.

Could you explain the concept of an IoC (Inversion of Control) Container?

An IoC (Inversion of Control) Container is a key component of the Spring Framework that implements the principle of inversion of control. In simpler terms, it is a container that manages the lifecycle and configuration of application components. It takes control of creating, configuring, and injecting dependencies between different objects, allowing for loose coupling and modular design.

The IoC Container in Spring, such as the ApplicationContext, handles the creation and management of objects, enabling developers to focus more on the business logic of their application rather than worrying about object instantiation and dependency management.

Learn more at: The Spring IoC Container.

Can you explain the concept of Dependency Injection? What role does it play in the Spring Framework?

Dependency Injection is a design pattern used in software development, including the Spring Framework. It enables the implementation of loosely coupled components by allowing the dependencies of a class to be injected from external sources rather than creating them internally. In simpler terms, it is the process of providing the required dependencies of an object from the outside.

This approach promotes modular and flexible code, as it reduces the tight coupling between classes and enhances testability and maintainability. In the context of Spring, it provides a container (IOC container) that manages the injection of dependencies, making it easier to configure and manage the application’s components.

Learn more at: Dependency Injection and Inversion of Control in Spring.

What are the distinctions between constructor injection and setter injection in Spring Framework?

Constructor injection and setter injection are two approaches for dependency injection in the Spring Framework. Constructor injection involves passing dependencies as arguments to a class constructor, while setter injection involves setting dependencies through setter methods.

The main difference between the two lies in the timing of dependency resolution. With constructor injection, dependencies are resolved and passed during object creation, ensuring that the object is fully initialized before it is used. Setter injection, on the other hand, allows dependencies to be set or changed after object creation.

Constructor injection promotes immutability and ensures that all required dependencies are available when creating an object. It is particularly useful when dependencies are mandatory and must be provided at the time of object instantiation.

Setter injection, on the other hand, offers flexibility by allowing dependencies to be set or changed dynamically. It is useful when dependencies are optional or can vary throughout the lifecycle of an object.

Both approaches have their merits and can be used based on the specific requirements of your application.

Learn more at: Spring Constructor-Based Injection. / Setter-based Dependency Injection in Spring.

Could you explain the concept of Spring Beans?

Spring Beans are the fundamental building blocks of the Spring Framework. They are Java objects that are managed by the Spring IoC (Inversion of Control) container. Spring Beans are defined and configured in the application context, allowing them to be easily instantiated, wired together, and managed throughout the lifecycle of an application.

The Spring IoC container takes responsibility for creating and initializing the beans, as well as handling their dependencies. By leveraging Spring Beans, developers can achieve loose coupling, modular design, and promote reusability in their applications.

What is the mechanism for providing configuration metadata to the Spring container?

The Spring framework offers multiple approaches for providing configuration metadata to the Spring container. One common method is by utilizing XML-based configuration files. These files contain the necessary details about beans, dependencies, and other configurations, which are then parsed and interpreted by the Spring container.

Another approach is through Java annotations, where configuration metadata is directly specified within the code using annotations such as @Component, @Configuration, or @Autowired.

Additionally, starting from Spring 3.0, a Java-based configuration option is available, where configuration metadata is written entirely in Java classes, leveraging the Spring JavaConfig feature. These different mechanisms allow developers to choose the most suitable approach for their specific application requirements.

Learn more at: @Component Annotation in Spring. / @Configuration Annotation in Spring Boot. / How to Use @Autowired in Spring.

Which different bean scopes does the Spring Framework offer, and how are they used?

The Spring Framework provides several bean scopes that control the lifecycle and availability of beans within an application. The commonly used bean scopes in Spring are:

  1. Singleton: This is the default scope in Spring. It ensures that only one instance of a bean is created and shared across the application context.
  2. Prototype: In contrast to the Singleton scope, the Prototype scope creates a new instance of a bean each time it is requested. This scope is useful when you need to have multiple independent instances of a bean.
  3. Request: The Request scope creates a new instance of a bean for each HTTP request. It is typically used in web applications to ensure that each request has its own instance of a bean.
  4. Session: The Session scope creates a new instance of a bean for each HTTP session. It allows for maintaining stateful information across multiple requests within the same session.
  5. Global Session: This scope is similar to the Session scope but is specific to portlet-based web applications. It creates a new instance of a bean for each global HTTP session.
  6. Custom Scopes: In addition to the built-in scopes, Spring also allows you to define custom scopes tailored to your specific requirements.

Understanding the various bean scopes in Spring is crucial for managing the lifecycle and behavior of beans within your application.

Learn more at: @Scope Annotation in Spring.

What is the life cycle of a Bean in the Spring Bean Factory Container, and how does it work?

The life cycle of a Bean in the Spring Bean Factory Container involves several stages. When a Bean is created, the container initializes it by calling its constructor and setting its properties.

After that, any necessary dependencies are injected into the Bean. Once all the initialization processes are completed, the Bean is ready to be used.

During its lifecycle, the container can also perform additional operations, such as method invocations or event handling.

Finally, when the container is shut down, it calls the appropriate methods to destroy the Bean, allowing it to release any resources it might be holding.

How does BeanFactory differ from ApplicationContext, and when should each one be used?

BeanFactory and ApplicationContext are both part of the Spring Framework, but they serve different purposes. BeanFactory is the basic container and provides the fundamental functionality for managing and retrieving beans. It is lightweight and suitable for most applications.

On the other hand, ApplicationContext is a more advanced container that extends the functionality of BeanFactory. It adds features like support for internationalization, event propagation, and resource handling. ApplicationContext is recommended for enterprise-level applications that require additional features beyond basic bean management.

In summary, while both BeanFactory and ApplicationContext are containers for managing beans in the Spring Framework, ApplicationContext provides more advanced features and is suitable for complex enterprise applications.

Could you explain the concept of XMLBeanFactory in Spring Framework?

XMLBeanFactory is a class in the Spring Framework that provides a way to configure and initialize beans using an XML-based configuration file. It serves as a container for managing the lifecycle of beans and their dependencies.

By parsing the XML configuration file, XMLBeanFactory creates and manages the bean instances, allowing for easy configuration and flexible dependency injection within a Spring application.

What is the concept of Bean Wiring in the Spring Framework, and how does it work?

Bean wiring, also known as dependency injection, is a fundamental concept in the Spring Framework. It refers to the process of establishing relationships between different components (beans) within an application. Instead of managing dependencies manually, Spring takes care of the wiring process, allowing beans to collaborate effectively.

In simpler terms, it is a way of connecting different beans together, enabling seamless communication and interaction between them. This approach promotes loose coupling, modularity, and maintainability in Spring applications.

What does autowiring mean in the context of the Spring Framework, and what are the various modes available for autowiring?

Autowiring in the Spring Framework is a feature that allows automatic dependency injection. It eliminates the need for explicit bean wiring in XML configuration files or manual wiring in Java code. The different modes of autowiring in Spring are:

  1. ByName: In this mode, Spring matches the name of the bean property with the name of the corresponding bean in the container and performs autowiring.
  2. ByType: With this mode, Spring matches the type of the bean property with the type of a single bean in the container and performs autowiring. If there are multiple beans of the same type, an exception is thrown.
  3. Constructor: In this mode, Spring looks for a constructor in the bean class that matches the arguments’ types and autowires the dependencies accordingly.
  4. No: This mode disables autowiring altogether. Dependencies must be explicitly wired using annotations or XML configuration.

It’s worth noting that starting from Spring 4.3, the autowiring mode is set to “no” by default. However, you can still specify the desired autowiring mode explicitly in your configuration.

What are the constraints or drawbacks associated with autowiring in the Spring Framework?

While autowiring offers convenience and reduces the need for explicit bean wiring, it does come with certain limitations. One limitation is the ambiguity that can arise when multiple beans of the same type are available for autowiring. In such cases, the framework may not be able to determine which bean should be injected, leading to a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException.

Another limitation is that autowiring is primarily based on type matching, which may not always be desired or precise. It may result in unexpected dependencies being injected if the application context contains multiple beans of compatible types.

Additionally, autowiring can be less explicit and may make it harder to understand the dependencies of a particular bean.

To overcome these limitations, it’s important to use autowiring judiciously and combine it with other wiring techniques, such as explicitly specifying dependencies or using qualifiers, when necessary.

How does Spring support transaction management, and what features does it offer?

Spring provides comprehensive support for transaction management through its powerful features and integration with various transaction management mechanisms.

It offers declarative transaction management, which allows developers to define transactional behavior using annotations or XML configuration.

Additionally, Spring supports programmatic transaction management, giving developers fine-grained control over transaction boundaries through the TransactionTemplate or the PlatformTransactionManager interface.

Furthermore, Spring seamlessly integrates with popular transaction management APIs, such as Java Transaction API (JTA), allowing for easy integration with enterprise-level transaction management systems. With Spring’s transaction management support, developers can ensure data integrity, consistency, and reliability in their applications.

What is the purpose of the object/relational mapping integration module in the Spring Framework?

The object/relational mapping integration module in the Spring Framework serves the purpose of simplifying the interaction between object-oriented programming and relational databases. It provides a seamless integration between Java objects and database tables by automatically mapping the object’s properties to corresponding database columns.

This module helps developers avoid writing complex SQL queries and enables them to work with objects instead, thereby increasing productivity and reducing development time.

What is the purpose of the web module in the Spring Framework, and how does it contribute to web development?

The web module in the Spring Framework is a crucial component that facilitates web development. It provides an abstraction layer on top of the Servlet API, allowing developers to build web applications in a more modular and flexible manner.

The web module offers features such as request handling, URL mapping, session management, and more. By integrating the web module into their projects, developers can leverage Spring’s powerful features to create scalable and robust web applications with ease.


In conclusion, this page has covered a range of important Spring Framework interview questions that can help both aspiring and experienced developers prepare for technical interviews. We explored various topics, including dependency injection, inversion of control, bean lifecycle, and transaction management, among others.

Remember to not only focus on memorizing answers but also understanding the underlying concepts and principles behind them. With continuous learning and practice, you can confidently navigate Spring Framework interviews and excel in your software development career. Be sure to explore the Spring Framework page for further insights and in-depth understanding of this powerful framework.

Frequently asked questions

  • Who uses Spring Framework?
    The Spring Framework is widely adopted and used by various organizations and developers across the globe. It is utilized by both small startups and large enterprises in different industries, including finance, e-commerce, healthcare, technology, and more. Companies such as Netflix, Amazon, LinkedIn, and eBay are known to leverage the Spring Framework to build robust, scalable, and maintainable applications. Additionally, countless developers and software development teams choose Spring for its extensive features, modular architecture, and community support.
  • Is it possible to integrate other frameworks or libraries with Spring?
    Yes, it is indeed possible to integrate other frameworks or libraries with the Spring Framework. Spring offers seamless integration capabilities and provides various mechanisms to integrate with external technologies. It supports integration with popular frameworks such as Hibernate for ORM (Object-Relational Mapping), Apache Kafka for messaging, and Apache Solr for search functionality, to name a few. The Spring ecosystem provides flexible and extensible integration options, allowing developers to leverage the power of Spring while incorporating additional features and functionality from other frameworks or libraries.
  • What is the main advantage of using the Spring Framework?
    The main advantage of using the Spring Framework is its comprehensive support for dependency injection and inversion of control. This allows for loose coupling between components, making the application more modular, flexible, and easier to test and maintain.